Which is pyrimidine analogue?

Which is pyrimidine analogue?

Pyrimidine analogs include 5-fluorouracil, cytosine arabinoside, 5-azacytidine, and gemcitabine.

How do pyrimidine analogues work?

The basic mechanism of action of purine and pyrimidine antimetabolites is similar. These compounds diffuse into cells (usually with the aid of a membrane transporter1) and are converted to analogues of cellular nucleotides by enzymes of the purine or pyrimidine metabolic pathway.

What is pyrimidine antimetabolite?

Pyrimidines. Pyrimidines and their nucleoside analogues are essential drugs for cancer therapy. These compounds act as antimetabolites interfering DNA replication in cells via converting to analogues of cellular nucleotides by the metabolic regular pathway thus causing DNA damage and induction of apoptosis [80-84].

Which of the following antiviral drug contain a pyrimidine analogue?

Pyrimidine Nucleosides

Drug Drug Description
Idoxuridine A pyrimidine analog antiviral used for the treatment of viral eye infections, including herpes simplex keratitis.
Floxuridine An antimetabolite used as palliative management for liver metastases of gastrointestinal malignancy.

Is 5-FU pyrimidine analog?

Pyrimidine analogs include fluorouracil (5-FU), capecitabine (Cape), cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C), gemcitabine (dFdC), and azacitidine (5-AC).

Which drug is pyrimidine antagonist?

The most commonly used pyrimidine antagonists are 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), gemcitabine (dFdC) and cytarabine (ara-C). Newer oral variants of 5-FU are capecitabine and tegafur.

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What are the 3 pyrimidine bases?

Three are pyrimidines and two purines. The pyrimidine bases are thymine (5-methyl-2,4-dioxipyrimidine), cytosine (2-oxo-4-aminopyrimidine), and uracil (2,4-dioxoypyrimidine) (Fig. 6.2).

What is the mechanism of action of 5-fluorouracil?

5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) can activate p53 by more than one mechanism: incorporation of fluorouridine triphosphate (FUTP) into RNA, incorporation of fluorodeoxyuridine triphosphate (FdUTP) into DNA and inhibition of thymidylate synthase (TS) by fluorodeoxyuridine monophosphate (FdUMP) with resultant DNA damage.

What is structure of pyrimidine?

Pyrimidine, any of a class of organic compounds of the heterocyclic series characterized by a ring structure composed of four carbon atoms and two nitrogen atoms. The simplest member of the family is pyrimidine itself, with molecular formula C4H4N2.

Is Dactinomycin an antimetabolite?

Dactinomycin, also known as actinomycin D, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of types of cancer. … Dactinomycin.

Clinical data
Trade names Cosmegen

Which group is an antimetabolite?

Antimetabolites are small, weakly acidic molecules that are cell cycle non-specific, inhibiting cellular metabolism by acting as false substrates during RNA and DNA synthesis. Examples of these agents include methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, aminopterin, cytarabine, thioguanine, and mercaptopurine.

What is the purpose of antimetabolite?

Antimetabolites are most commonly used to treat leukemias and cancers of the breast, ovary, and the intestinal tract. But since the drugs work to slow the growth of any quickly dividing cell type, they can be used to treat various others cancers, too.

Is 5 fluorouracil a nucleoside analogue?

Nucleoside analogues like cytarabine (ara-C), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and gemcitabine (dF-dC) are characterised by low oral bioavailability and high first-pass effects in the liver [230,231].

Which antiviral drug is thymidine analog?

A thymidine analog that inhibits DNA polymerase activity, trifluridine is an antiviral drug used primarily as a treatment of Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-1 and HSV-2) and vaccinia virus [Drug Facts and Comparison (2001)].

What is composition of nucleoside?

A nucleoside consists of a nitrogenous base covalently attached to a sugar (ribose or deoxyribose) but without the phosphate group. A nucleotide consists of a nitrogenous base, a sugar (ribose or deoxyribose) and one to three phosphate groups. Nucleoside = Sugar + Base. Nucleotide = Sugar + Base + Phosphate.

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What is the mechanism of action of gemcitabine?

The most important mechanism of action of gemcitabine is inhibition of DNA synthesis (Huang et al., 1991). When dFdCTP is incorporated into DNA, a single deoxynucleotide is incorporated afterwards, preventing chain elongation (Gandhi et al., 1996).

What is azacitidine used to treat?

Azacitidine is used to treat myelodysplastic syndrome (a group of conditions in which the bone marrow produces blood cells that are misshapen and does not produce enough healthy blood cells). Azacitidine is in a class of medications called demethylation agents.

What are purines vs pyrimidines?

Purines and pyrimidines are the nitrogen bases that hold DNA strands together through hydrogen bonds. … The purines in DNA are adenine and guanine, the same as in RNA. The pyrimidines in DNA are cytosine and thymine; in RNA, they are cytosine and uracil.

What is a pyrimidine antagonist?

The pyrimidine antagonists act to block the synthesis of pyrimidine containing nucleotides (C and T in DNA; C and U in RNA). The drugs used to block the construction of these nucleotides have structures that are similar to the natural compound.

Is Methotrexate a pyrimidine antagonist?

Mechanism of action. Drugs in the category include methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil (folic acid antagonists); azathioprine, mercaptopurine, and 6-thioguanine (purine antagonists); and cytosine arabinoside and gemcitabine (pyrimidine antagonists).

Why is cyclophosphamide used?

Cyclophosphamide is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat Hodgkin’s lymphoma (Hodgkin’s disease) and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (types of cancer that begin in a type of white blood cells that normally fights infection); cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL, a group of cancers of the immune system that …

What 2 bases are pyrimidines?

Cytosine and thymine are the two major pyrimidine bases in DNA and base pair (see WatsonCrick Pairing) with guanine and adenine (see Purine Bases), respectively. In RNA, uracil replaces thymine and base pairs with adenine.

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What are the four pyrimidine bases?

The pyrimidine bases are thymine, cytosine, and uracil. In GATCAATGC, four pyrimidine bases are present, two thymines and two cytosines. Thus, the correct answer is option A i.e., GATCAATGC. Note: A purine is attached to pyrimidine by hydrogen bonds.

Which drug contain pyrimidine ring?

Pyrimidines

Drug Drug Description
Idoxuridine A pyrimidine analog antiviral used for the treatment of viral eye infections, including herpes simplex keratitis.
Talbutal For use as a sedative and hypnotic.
Pentobarbital A barbiturate drug used to induce sleep, cause sedation, and control certain types of seizures.

How effective is 5-fluorouracil?

Topical 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) for the treatment of widespread multiple AK lesions has cure rates of more than 90 percent. The associated skin irritation, however, may lead patients to prematurely discontinue treatment.

What are the side effects of 5-FU?

Common side effects of 5FU

  • Risk of infection. This treatment can reduce the number of white blood cells in your blood. …
  • Bruising and bleeding. …
  • Anaemia (low number of red blood cells) …
  • Feeling sick. …
  • Diarrhoea. …
  • Sore mouth and throat. …
  • Loss of appetite. …
  • Changes to your taste.

What is the target of 5-fluorouracil?

TYMS is considered as the key therapeutic target for 5-FU and overexpression of its gene has been linked to 5-FU resistance in in vitro as well as in in vivo experiments34 , 35. TYMS showed no LOF mutations in the breast and colorectal cohort, supporting the findings that TYMS is an essential gene36.

What are examples of pyrimidine?

Examples of pyrimidines are cytosine, thymine, and uracil. Cytosine and thymine are used to make DNA and cytosine and uracil are used to make RNA.

Which is a pyrimidine?

Pyrimidine is one of two classes of heterocyclic nitrogenous bases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA: in DNA the pyrimidines are cytosine and thymine, in RNA uracil replaces thymine.

Is uracil a pyrimidine?

Uracil is a demethylated form of thymine. Uracil is a common and naturally occurring pyrimidine derivative.