Table of Contents
What is toxicogenetics?
Toxicogenetics, therefore, describes consideration of stable and heritable alterations in the genome that are able to influence the relative susceptibility of an individual (or group of individuals) to the adverse health effects that may result from exposure to an exogenous material.
What is toxic genomics?
Toxicogenomics is a field of science that deals with the collection, interpretation and storage of information about gene and protein activity within particular cells or tissues of an organism in response to toxic substances.
How does genomics work?
Genomics is the study of whole genomes of organisms, and incorporates elements from genetics. Genomics uses a combination of recombinant DNA, DNA sequencing methods, and bioinformatics to sequence, assemble, and analyse the structure and function of genomes.
What is Chemical Toxicology?
Chemical toxicology is a subspecialty of toxicology that focuses on the structure of chemical agents and how it affects their mechanism of action on living organisms.
What is the study of how genes affect a person’s response to drugs?
Pharmacogenomics (also known as pharmacogenetics) is the study of how our genes affect the way we react and respond to medications. The word pharmacogenomics comes from the words pharmacology (the study of the uses and effects of medications) and genomics (the study of genes and their functions).
What steps are involved in toxicokinetics?
Four processes are involved in toxicokinetics:
- Absorption the substance enters the body.
- Distribution the substance moves from the site of entry to other areas of the body.
- Biotransformation the body changes (transforms) the substance into new chemicals (metabolites).
Why is functional genomics important?
The goal of functional genomics is to determine how the individual components of a biological system work together to produce a particular phenotype. Functional genomics focuses on the dynamic expression of gene products in a specific context, for example, at a specific developmental stage or during a disease.
What is genotoxic effect?
Abstract. A genotoxin is a chemical or agent that can cause DNA or chromosomal damage. Such damage in a germ cell has the potential to cause a heritable altered trait (germline mutation). DNA damage in a somatic cell may result in a somatic mutation, which may lead to malignant transformation (cancer).
What are Toxicodynamics and toxicokinetics?
Toxicokinetics describes how a toxicant (i.e., a poison) enters the body and reaches a target tissue. Toxicodynamics describes what happens to that tissue once the toxicant reaches an effective dose. Susceptibility to toxicants changes during development.
What is genomics and types?
Types of genomics Structural genomics: Aims to determine the structure of every protein encoded by the genome. Functional genomics: Aims to collect and use data from sequencing for describing gene and protein functions. Comparative genomics: Aims to compare genomic features between different species.
What does DNA stand for *?
Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA / Full name Answer: Deoxyribonucleic acid a large molecule of nucleic acid found in the nuclei, usually in the chromosomes, of living cells. DNA controls such functions as the production of protein molecules in the cell, and carries the template for reproduction of all the inherited characteristics of its particular species.
How is genomics used in medicine?
Genomic medicine is the study of our genes (DNA) and their interaction with our health. Genomics investigates how a person’s biological information can be used to improve their clinical care and health outcomes (eg through effective diagnosis and personalised treatment.
What are the three types of toxicology?
There are various types of toxicology as outlined below:
- Analytical toxicology.
- Applied toxicology.
- Clinical toxicology.
- Veterinary toxicology.
- Forensic toxicology.
- Environment toxicology.
- Industrial toxicology.
Is a toxicologist a doctor?
A medical toxicologist is a medical doctor who specializes in the prevention, evaluation and treatment of illness from exposure to drugs, chemicals, and biological agents. Medical toxicologists also focus on the diagnosis, management, and prevention of withdrawal conditions and addiction.
What are the four major types of toxic substances?
Types. There are generally five types of toxic entities; chemical, biological, physical, radiation and behavioural toxicity: Disease-causing microorganisms and parasites are toxic in a broad sense but are generally called pathogens rather than toxicants.
Is GeneSight FDA approved?
The company said GeneSight has approval through the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) and that FDA has the authority to also give approval to the test.
Why do some drugs work for some people and not others?
And small differences in genes are the reason a drug works in some people and not in others. These differences also are the reason some people metabolize drugs faster than others–meaning that some individuals might require higher or lower dosages of the same drug to get the same effect–depending on their genes.
Does genetic testing show drugs?
Some genes are responsible for how your body processes medications. Pharmacogenomic tests look for changes or variants in these genes that may determine whether a medication could be an effective treatment for you or whether you could have side effects to a specific medication.
Why is toxicokinetics important?
The primary purpose of toxicokinetic studies is to deter mine the rate, extent and duration ofsystemic exposure of the test animal species to the test compound at the different dose levels employed during toxicity studies and to pro vide data for direct comparison with human exposure to the test compound.
What is the difference between pharmacokinetics and toxicokinetics?
Pharmacokinetics generally deals with doses that are in a therapeutic range. Thus common dose ranges will include the no pharmacologic effect level on the low end, and the maximum pharmacologic effect level on the high end. Toxicokinetics is the study of systemic exposure during toxicological experiments.
Why are drugs referred to as xenobiotics?
The term xenobiotic is derived from the Greek words (xenos) = foreigner, stranger and (bios) = life, plus the Greek suffix for adjectives -, -, – (-tikos, -, -on). Xenobiotics may be grouped as carcinogens, drugs, environmental pollutants, food additives, hydrocarbons, and pesticides.
What is functional genomics example?
The earliest examples of functional genomics came in the form of forward genetic screens in model organisms such as bacteriophages, bacteria, budding yeast, fruit flies, and roundworms.
What are the application of genomics?
The most commonly-known application of genomics is to understand and find cures for diseases. Predicting the risk of disease involves screening currently-healthy individuals by genome analysis at the individual level. Intervention with lifestyle changes and drugs can be recommended before disease onset.
What is the goal of structural genomics?
Structural genomics aims to develop a resource of representative protein fold structures to extrapolate (in theory) any protein structure by homology modeling. In contrast, hypothesis-driven structural biology seeks to understand biological function, often by solving protein structures.
What is the difference between genotoxic and mutagenic?
Mutagenic substances capable of increasing the spontaneous mutation rate by causing changes in the DNA. Genotoxic substances capable of damaging the DNA and leading to mutations.
Why is genotoxicity important?
Genotoxicity studies Any damage to DNA in the form of gene mutations, large -scale chromosomal damage, recombinant and numerical chromosome changes is considered essential for heritable effects and in the multistep process of malignancy. Compounds that cause such changes have a potential to cause cancer in humans.
What is the difference between genotoxicity and carcinogenicity?
The term genotoxic carcinogen indicates a chemical capable of producing cancer by directly altering the genetic material of target cells, while non-genotoxic carcinogen represents a chemical capable of producing cancer by some secondary mechanism not related to direct gene damage.
What are the two types of toxicity?
The two types of toxicity are acute and chronic. Acute toxicity of a pesticide refers to the chemical’s ability to cause injury to a person or animal from a single exposure, generally of short duration. The four routes of exposure are dermal (skin), inhalation (lungs), oral (mouth), and eyes.
What is the most common target organ of toxicity?
In vitro models are developed using cells or tissues from the organs that are the typical targets of toxicity. The liver is the primary site for the metabolism of many chemicals and drugs by the body and is also the primary site of potential toxic injury (hepatotoxicity).
What is the concept of Toxicodynamics?
Toxicodynamics, termed pharmacodynamics in pharmacology, describes the dynamic interactions of a toxicant with a biological target and its biological effects. A biological target, also known as the site of action, can be binding proteins, ion channels, DNA, or a variety of other receptors.