Table of Contents
What is the purpose of an expansion loop in a steam line?
Expansion loops provide sufficient flexibility to prevent thermal expansion and contraction from causing excessive stresses in the piping system. Expansion loops often are required in high-temperature gas well flow lines and gas and water injection lines.
How do expansion loops work?
Expansion loops are placed in the middle of a run of pipe. The pipe is configured into a U shape, and its center is restrained with a bracket. Each side of the pipe run coming into the U is hung with a hanger or guide, allowing the pipe to move back and forth. For expansion, the opening of the U narrows.
How do you size a steam expansion loop?
GUIDELINES FOR LOOP SIZING The expansion loop, as a rule, should be located in the center of the distance between two anchors. 3. The height of the expansion loop is normally twice the width. The exception to this rule occurs when more than one line runs parallel in a common trench.
What is a steam expansion joint?
Steam Line & Expansion Joint Repair Broken or ineffective steam lines and expansion joints can cause inefficiencies or health & safety risks. … Pipe expansion joints are made to help accommodate movement in industrial piping systems caused by thermal and mechanical changes.
How many expansion loops are there?
3) Expansion Loops may be 2-D (Two-dimensional loop) or 3-D (three-dimensional loop) types. Normally for steam lines, flare lines, condensate lines, sloped lines, where is the possibility of two-phase flow, 2-D expansion loops are preferred. Otherwise, the 3-D loop can be provided.
Why there is U bend in steam line?
when u shut the boiler,the pipes again gets colder.in this process of cooling n heaTING,the gaskets in the flanges gets loose n finnaly get leaked at pressure.so u-bends r provided mainly for expantion n contraction.it also helps in draining out the condensate at the bottom of the u-bend through steam traps.
Where are expansion loops positioned?
The expansion loop is usually located on the side of the hottest line. The expansion loop, as a rule, should be located in the center of the distance between two anchors. The height of the expansion loop is normally twice the width.
How do you compensate for thermal expansion?
Another example of a method to compensation for thermal expansion is expansion joints. Bridges are built with metal expansion joints, which contain gaps between bridge sections that allow for expansion and contraction without causing faults in the overall structure of the bridge.
Do copper pipes expand?
Copper Pipe Expansion Copper pipes can expand as much as 1 inch per 100 feet when they get hot, and this can make them bang against the framing to which they are attached.
How do you calculate expansion of a pipe?
Stresses Induced by Thermal Pipe Expansion-The Basics
- S = F/A (Equation 1)
- = L/Lo (Equation 2)
- S = E (Equation 3)
- = a (T2-T1) (Equation 4)
What does coefficient of thermal expansion mean?
When materials are heated, their size and volume increase in small increments, in a phenomenon known as thermal expansion. … The coefficient ratio of thermal expansion indicates how much a material expands per 1 (2.2) rise in temperature.
Why are bridges built with expansion joints?
Bridge expansion joints are designed to allow for continuous traffic between structures while accommodating movement, shrinkage, and temperature variations on reinforced and prestressed concrete, composite, and steel structures.
What are the types of expansion joint?
Types of Metal Expansion Joints
- SINGLE UNRESTRAINED. …
- UNIVERSAL EXPANSION JOINT. …
- SINGLE TIED EXPANSION JOINT. …
- TIED UNIVERSAL EXPANSION JOINT. …
- PRESSURE BALANCED ELBOW EXPANSION JOINT. …
- GIMBAL EXPANSION JOINT. …
- HINGED EXPANSION JOINT. …
- IN-LINE PRESSURE BALANCED EXPANSION JOINT.
What is pipe expansion?
As the pipe temperature changes from the installation condition to the operating condition, it expands or contracts. In the general term, both expansion and contraction are called thermal expansion. When a pipe expands it has the potential of generating enormous force and stress in the system.
What is metal expansion?
Heat Expansion in Different Metals. … The expansion (or contraction) of any material is due to the kinetic energy of its atoms. When a material is heated, the increase in energy causes the atoms and molecules to move more and to take up more space that is, to expand. This is true of even a solid such as a metal.
What is pipe expansion joint?
A rubber pipe expansion joint is a flexible connector of two pipes. It provides stress relief in a piping system due to thermal and mechanical vibration or movements. … Carcass The carcass or body of the expansion joint consists of fabric, and when necessary metal.
What is a pipeline loop?
Looping is a pipeline section laid parallel to the main gas pipeline. … The gas pipeline section with a looping has a lower flow rate of the product being conveyed via the main gas pipeline, which leads to the reduction of the total gas pressure loss for flow resistance overcoming.
What is the purpose of 90 degrees bend?
This is a fitting device which is bent in such a way to produce 90 degree change in the direction of flow of the content in the pipe. An Elbow is used to change the direction in piping and is also sometimes called a quarter bend. A 90 degree elbow attaches readily to plastic, copper, cast iron, steel and lead.
Why are water pipes bent?
An S-shaped trap is also known as an S-bend. … Because of its shape, the trap retains some water after the fixture’s use. This water creates an air seal that prevents sewer gas from passing from the drain pipes back into the building.
Is used for bending a pipe line at 90 degree?
Miter bends A true miter bend is a 90-degree bend made by cutting two pipes at 45 degrees and joining them by welding.
What is a plumbing expansion loop?
Sponsored Links. The expansion loop is a common way to absorb temperature expansion and contraction in steel pipes. Expansion loops can be fabricated from standard pipes and elbows.
How is expansion controlled in piping systems?
Expansion loops accommodate thermal movements by installing sections of piping that run perpendicular to the piping system. … A fixing point is used to ensure that the expansion is directed to the expansion loop where the force and movement is controlled.
How much does steam pipe expand?
Steam pipes heated from room temperature to operation temperatures – expands
|Operating Temperature (oF)||Expansion (inches per 100 ft Pipe)|
What are 2 examples of thermal expansion?
Here are five examples:
- If you have ever tried to unscrew a stuck lid off a glass jar, you’ll appreciate this expansion effect. …
- Bridges have a long span and in hot weather the materials that the bridge is made of will expand. …
- A liquid, when heated, will expand and can be made to rise up a tube.
How do you deal with thermal expansion?
When thermal expansion occurs, the issue must immediately be repaired before a derailment occurs. To repair a rail that has endured thermal expansion, the rail must be cut, heated, and welded together. If a rail is found to exceed its stress level, or has experienced a kink, the rail is reheated to expand the steel.
How do you account for thermal expansion?
Design Factors to Consider
- Amount of Linear Expansion. The amount a pipe will expand and contract is dependent on three factors: …
- Working Stress. …
- Modulus of Elasticity. …
- Outer Diameter of the Pipe. …
- Expansion Loop. …
- Expansion Offset. …
- Change of Direction. …
- Expansion Joint.
Does hot water expand?
When water is heated, it expands, or increases in volume. When water increases in volume, it becomes less dense. As water cools, it contracts and decreases in volume. … For samples of water that have the same mass, warmer water is less dense and colder water is more dense.
Do PVC pipes expand?
Like all materials, PVC expands with increasing temperatures and contracts with decreasing temperatures. Because the length-to-diameter ratios of PVC pipe and conduit products are generally very large, length change from temperature variation is the most noticeable.
Does hot water expand pipes?
Does that mean pipes expand in hot water, too? They can and often do. … This causes most pipes to rapidly expand whenever hot water is used. If you hear rattles, bangs or other odd plumbing noises every time you turn on the hot water (and only hot water), it’s probably this rapid expansion that is causing it.