What is overwhelming infection?

What is overwhelming infection?

Overwhelming post-splenectomy infection (OPSI) is a serious disease that can progress from a mild flu-like illness to fulminant sepsis in a short time period. However, recognition and clinical management of OPSI is not well established.

What antibiotics are given after splenectomy?

Severe sepsis and septic shock may occur years after splenectomy. Other choices for antibiotic prophylaxis include penicillin or amoxicillin, and in penicillin-allergic patients, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or clarithromycin may be substituted.

How do you prevent infection after splenectomy?

Most infections that occur after splenectomy can be avoided through the following measures:

  1. You should be immunised against the following. Pneumococcus. …
  2. You will probably be advised to take low-dose antibiotics every day for life. …
  3. Keep a course of full-strength broad-spectrum antibiotics handy.

Is there an increased risk for infection after the removal of the spleen?

After splenectomy, other organs in your body take over most of the functions previously performed by your spleen. You can be active without a spleen, but you’re at increased risk of becoming sick or getting serious infections. This risk is highest shortly after surgery.

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What is post-splenectomy infection?

An overwhelming post-splenectomy infection (OPSI) is a rare but rapidly fatal infection occurring in individuals following removal (or permanent dysfunction) of the spleen.

What is overwhelming post-splenectomy sepsis?

Overwhelming post-splenectomy infection. The major long-term complication of splenectomy is OPSI, also known as post-splenectomy sepsis syndrome, which is defined as a generalized non-specific flu-like prodrome followed by rapid deterioration to full-blown fulminant septic shock within 24-48 hours of the onset [9].

What are the complications of splenectomy?

Splenectomy Complications

  • Blood clot in the vein that carries blood to the liver.
  • Hernia at the incision site.
  • Infection at the incision site.
  • Inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis)
  • Lung collapse.
  • Injury to the pancreas, stomach, and colon.

Do splenectomy patients need prophylactic antibiotics?

In children who become asplenic after five years of age, prophylactic antibiotics should be given for at least one year after splenectomy. Some experts in infectious diseases recommend continued prophylaxis throughout childhood and into adulthood.

What does Hyposplenism mean?

Hyposplenia is the reduced or absent function of the spleen, impairing the capacity to prevent bacterial infections.

What organ takes over after spleen removal?

Living without a spleen. If your spleen needs to be removed, other organs, such as the liver, can take over many of the spleen’s functions. This means you’ll still be able to cope with most infections. But there’s a small risk that a serious infection may develop quickly.

Why are splenectomy patients at risk of infection?

Splenectomized patients are a significant infection risk, because the spleen is the largest accumulation of lymphoid tissue in the body [1]. The spleen has an abundance of lymphoid tissue, including splenic macrophages that attack encapsulated organisms.

Are splenectomy patients immunocompromised?

7,8 Patients who have had a splenectomy or have functional asplenia are immunocompromised and are at increased risk for severe and overwhelming bacterial infections, particularly from encapsulated bacteria.

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What would happen if an otherwise healthy person had to have their spleen removed after an accident?

If your spleen has to be taken out, you may have an increased risk of severe infection. The degree of risk depends on your age and if you have other diseases. Although your risk of infection is highest in the first two years after splenectomy, it stays high for the rest of your life.

Does spleen removal shorten your life?

The mean age of the patients at splenectomy was 56 years and the mean duration of their disease 2.4 years. The median actuarial survival after operation was 51 months. Although the series of patients is small, it seems that splenectomy did not have an adverse effect on life expectancy.

What happens to red blood cells after splenectomy?

However, after a splenectomy the lack of presence of the spleen means this function cannot be carried out so damaged erythrocytes will continue to circulate in the blood and can release substances into the blood.

What is an encapsulated infection?

The term ‘encapsulated bacteria’ refers to bacteria covered with a polysaccharide capsule. Examples of such bacteria include Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

What are examples of encapsulated bacteria?

Examples of encapsulated bacteria

  • Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus)
  • Neisseria meningitides (meningococcus)
  • Group B streptococcus (GBS)
  • Salmonella typhi.

Why does splenectomy cause leukocytosis?

1,6,7 Splenectomy causes a transient leukocytosis that lasts for weeks to months. In hemolytic anemia, non-specific increases in leukocyte production and release occur in association with increased red blood cell production; marrow growth factors are likely contributors.

How can OPSI be prevented?

Strategies to prevent OPSI include education; vaccination against S.pneumoniae, H.influenzae type b, N.meningitidis and influenza (annually); daily antibiotics for at least 2 years postsplenectomy and emergency antibiotics in case of infection.

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What does OPSI mean?

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. OPSI may stand for: Overwhelming post-splenectomy infection, rapidly fatal septicaemia in a patient who has undergone splenectomy (removal of the spleen).

How do you prevent encapsulated bacteria?

Prevention of these infections should be obtained in all patients with 1) patient and family education, 2) prophylaxis by means of vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae, 3) antibiotic prophylaxis, based primarily on penicillin, 4) delay of elective splenectomy or use methods of tissue …

What does a swollen spleen indicate?

An enlarged spleen is the result of damage or trauma to the spleen from any of several different medical conditions, diseases, or types of physical trauma. Infections, liver problems, blood cancers, and metabolic disorders can all cause your spleen to become enlarged, a condition called splenomegaly.

What is acquired asplenia?

Etiology. Asplenia can be acquired, functionally reduced despite its anatomic presence, or in those who congenitally lack a spleen at birth. Most commonly, acquired asplenia is due to surgical removal or trauma.

What vaccines are needed after splenectomy?

Pneumococcal, meningococcal, and Haemophilus influenzae (Hib) vaccinations are indicated for patients after splenectomy.

How does your spleen get infected?

Viral infections, such as mononucleosis. Bacterial infections, such as syphilis or an infection of your heart’s inner lining (endocarditis) Parasitic infections, such as malaria. Cirrhosis and other diseases affecting the liver.

What causes a spleen to atrophy?

Hyposplenism is seen in patients with sickle-cell disease and is due to splenic infarction, but it may also occur in patients with coeliac disease or dermatitis herpetiformis. Occasionally it may be seen in patients with essential thrombocythaemia and ulcerative colitis.

Can you get disability for no spleen?

Under Diagnostic Code 7706, a splenectomy warrants a 20 percent disability rating. This diagnostic code also provides the instruction to rate complications such as systemic infections with encapsulated bacteria separately.