What is Kommerell aneurysm?

What is Kommerell aneurysm?

Kommerell aneurysm is an outpouching from a kommerell diverticulum. Mimics include saccular aneurysm of the thoracic aorta, ductus diverticulum and dilated Kommerell diverticulum. Kommerell aneurysm has the tendency to rupture, therefore, accurate diagnosis is critical.

Is Kommerell diverticulum an aneurysm?

Kommerell’s diverticulum refers to the aneurysmal dilatation of the descending aorta at the origin of an aberrant subclavian artery, which is seen in both right- and left-sided aortic arches.

What is an aberrant left subclavian artery?

Left aberrant subclavian artery (LASA), also known as left lusoria artery, is a type of RAA branching, which takes-off distally to the right subclavian artery (as the last RAA branch) and usually crosses behind the esophagus to the left upper limb.

What is a ductus diverticulum?

A ductus diverticulum is a normal variant representing a developmental outpouching of the thoracic aorta. It is a key differential diagnosis for thoracic aorta traumatic injuries (e.g. pseudoaneurysm), which commonly occur at the same location.

What is subclavian steal syndrome?

The subclavian steal syndrome is characterized by a subclavian artery stenosis located proximal to the origin of the vertebral artery. In this case, the subclavian artery steals reverse-flow blood from the vertebrobasilar artery circulation to supply the arm during exertion, resulting in vertebrobasilar insufficiency.

What is a bovine arch?

SUMMARY: The term bovine arch is widely used to describe a common anatomic variant of the human aortic arch branching. … By its name, the bovine aortic arch in humans would presumably resemble the aortic arch branching pattern found in the family of ruminant animals, including cattle and buffalo.

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What is a double aortic arch?

Double aortic arch is an abnormal formation of the aorta, the large artery that carries blood from the heart to the rest of the body. It is a congenital problem, which means that it is present at birth.

What are subclavian vessels?

The subclavian arteries are a pair of large arteries in the thorax that supply blood to the thorax itself, head, neck, shoulder and arms. Depending on the side of the body, it can have two origins: the aortic arch on the left and the brachiocephalic trunk on the right.

What is an aberrant subclavian artery?

Aberrant right subclavian artery (ARSA) is a rare anomaly, in which the right subclavian artery arises directly from the aortic arch instead of originating from the brachiocephalic artery. This anomaly should be taken into consideration during surgical procedures around esophagus, such as esophagectomy.

How is aberrant subclavian artery treated?

(28) found that the aberrant right subclavian artery necessitates an open surgical approach through a right thoracotomy which enables mobilization of the vessel, dividing it at its base and directly connecting it to the ascending aorta or right common carotid artery.

How rare is aberrant right subclavian artery?

Aberrant right subclavian artery (also known as Arteria Lusoria) is the most common congenital anomaly of the aortic arch occurring in 0.5% to 1.8% of the population based on cadaveric studies.

Is aberrant right subclavian artery hereditary?

Although the diagnosis of an aberrant right subclavian artery is beginning to be used as a sonographic marker of aneuploidy and congenital heart defects, the etiology of this vascular abnormality could be related to genetic disorders.

What is a ductus bump?

Imaging description Ductus diverticulum (DD) is an anatomic variant incidentally found at cardiovascular imaging characterized by a smooth bulge of the anterior wall of the aorta at the aortic isthmus, just distal to the origin of the left subclavian artery.

What is Ligamentum Arteriosum?

The ligamentum arteriosum (or arteriosus) is the small fibrous remnant of the fetal ductus arteriosum, located between and connecting the proximal left pulmonary artery and the undersurface of the junction of the aortic arch and descending aorta, at the aortic isthmus.

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Where is the thoracic aorta?

The thoracic aorta begins at the heart, at the level of the aortic valves. The thoracic aorta becomes the abdominal aorta at the diaphragm, just proximal to the celiac artery origin, usually at the T12 vertebral body. The thor-acic aorta is divided into ascending, transverse, and descending portions (Fig. 9-1).

What happens if the subclavian artery is blocked?

The symptoms that do occur are tied to the area that is blocked. You may experience arm pain or muscle fatigue when using your arms above your head, or doing any activity that demands more oxygen-rich blood flow to the arms. Other symptoms can include: Dizziness (vertigo) with arm activity.

Is subclavian steal syndrome a disability?

A disability rating in excess of 20 percent for left-sided subclavical steal syndrome with bilateral iliac disease with involvement of the carotid arteries is denied.

Which arm has lower blood pressure in subclavian steal?

Ninety-four percent of patients with subclavian steal have a systolic blood pressure that is 20 mm Hg or more, which is lower on the affected arm (the mean difference between the arms is 45 mm Hg in affected patients).

How common is a bovine arch?

Bovine arch is the most common variant of the aortic arch and occurs when the brachiocephalic (innominate) artery shares a common origin with the left common carotid artery. A bovine arch is apparent in ~15% (range 8-25%) of the population and is more common in individuals of African descent.

How is a bovine person like a cow?

bovine Add to list Share. … People can be described as bovine if they are intellectually dull, slow-moving, or somewhat cow-like in their appearance.

What is dysphagia Lusoria?

Dysphagia lusoria is a term used to describe dysphagia as a consequence of vascular compression of the oesophagus. Bayford coined the term itself meaning freak or jest of nature in 1761 in describing a case of longstanding dysphagia leading to emaciation and eventual death of a 62-year old female patient.

How do you fix a double aortic arch?

Surgery can be done to fix double aortic arch. The surgeon ties off the smaller branch and separates it from the larger branch. Then the surgeon closes the ends of the aorta with stitches. This relieves pressure on the esophagus and windpipe.

What percentage of people have a double aortic arch?

Generally, incidence of double aortic arch and vascular rings is unknown, although vascular rings comprise an estimated 1% of cardiovascular malformations that are managed surgically. In most surgical series, 45-65% of patients undergoing repair of a vascular ring have a double aortic arch.

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What is vascular ring?

A vascular ring is a malformation of the aortic arch anatomy, where vessels partly or completely encircle the trachea and esophagus. A normal heart with a normal aortic arch is shown on the left. An example of a vascular ring a double aortic arch is shown on the right.

What is a subclavian aneurysm?

A subclavian aneurysm is weakness or bulging in the wall of the subclavian artery, which is located below the collarbone. If the aneurysm ruptures, it can cause life-threatening, uncontrolled bleeding.

What is the purpose of subclavian artery?

The subclavian arteries lie just below the clavicles, providing blood supply to the bilateral upper extremities with contributions to the head and neck. The right subclavian artery derives from the brachiocephalic trunk, while the left subclavian artery originates directly from the aortic arch.

What is the function of the subclavian vein?

The primary function of the subclavian vein is to drain deoxygenated blood from the upper region of the bodyincluding the arms and the shoulder areasand transport it back to the heart. 6 Another important function of the subclavian is to collect lymph fluid from the lymphatic system from the internal jugular vein.

Is ARSA a problem?

The performance of a fetal karyotype test when ARSA is an isolated finding is still a debatable issue. The most common aortic arch anomaly is ARSA [2,5,6,8]. The incidence of ARSA in the normal population in prenatal and postmortem studies has been reported to be approximately 0.4%- 2% [1,4,15,16,18].

Is ARSA hereditary?

There seems to be a genetic component in ARSA. Genetic counseling can help to determine your individual risk of recurrence, which depends on whether a cause for the ARSA was found in the first place as well as your age and other factors.

What is left aortic arch with aberrant right subclavian artery?

Left aortic arch with aberrant right subclavian artery is the most common congenital anomaly of the aortic arch with a prevalence of 0.5%2% (14). This anomaly results from regression of the right arch (between the right common carotid and right subclavian arteries) including the right ductus arteriosus (Fig 6).