What is a DNA Translocase?

DNA translocases are motor proteins that convert the chemical energy of ATP hydrolysis into directional movement along DNA. We have used DNA curtains to study the movement of the motor proteins RecBCD and FtsK.

What does a Translocase do?

Translocase is a general term for a protein that assists in moving another molecule, usually across a cell membrane. These enzymes catalyze the movement of ions or molecules across membranes or their separation within membranes. … Translocases are the most common secretion system in Gram positive bacteria.

Is helicase a Translocase?

Helicases and nucleic acid translocases are motor proteins that have essential roles in nearly all aspects of nucleic acid metabolism, ranging from DNA replication to chromatin remodelling.

Which transcription factor has DNA unwinding activity?

factor TFIIH subunit Ssl2 Here we show that the general transcription factor TFIIH subunit Ssl2 is a double-stranded DNA translocase. These and other data suggest that Ssl2 promotes DNA opening by tracking along the nontemplate promoter strand, rotating and inserting DNA into the Pol II active site cleft, leading to DNA unwinding.

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Where is the Translocase located?

mitochondria The translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) is a complex of proteins found in the outer mitochondrial membrane of the mitochondria. It allows movement of proteins through this barrier and into the intermembrane space of the mitochondrion.

What are the components of bacterial Translocase?

An inventory of translocase parts: integral membrane subunits. Translocase comprises the integral membrane polypeptides SecY, SecE and SecG and the peripheral protein SecA and requires acidic phospholipids (reviewed by 30; 1; 48).

What are the examples of transferases?


EC number Examples
EC 2.3 acyltransferase
EC 2.4 glycosyltransferase, hexosyltransferase, and pentosyltransferase
EC 2.5 riboflavin synthase and chlorophyll synthase
EC 2.6 transaminase, and oximinotransferase

What are the 7 types of enzymes?

Enzymes can be classified into 7 categories according to the type of reaction they catalyse. These categories are oxidoreductases, transferases, hydrolases, lyases, isomerases, ligases, and translocases. Out of these, oxidoreductases, transferases and hydrolases are the most abundant forms of enzymes.

What does a transferase enzyme do?

Transferases are enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a group of atoms, such as amine, carboxyl, carbonyl, methyl, acyl, glycosyl, and phosphoryl from a donor substrate to an acceptor compound.

Does helicase need ATP?

There are DNA and RNA helicases. … The process of breaking the hydrogen bonds between the nucleotide base pairs in double-stranded DNA requires energy. To break the bonds, helicases use the energy stored in a molecule called ATP, which serves as the energy currency of cells.

What does DNA helicase do quizlet?

Helicases are enzymes that bind and may even remodel nucleic acid or nucleic acid protein complexes. … DNA helicases are essential during DNA replication because they separate double-stranded DNA into single strands allowing each strand to be copied.

Which bond is hydrolyzed for the purpose of providing free energy for the activity of a DNA helicase?

Helicases are molecular motor proteins present in viruses, bacteria, and eukaryotes [1, 2]. They harness the chemical energy of ATP hydrolysis to break the energetically stable hydrogen bonding between the duplex DNA.

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Is the TATA box a transcription factor?

The TATA-binding protein (TBP) is a general transcription factor that binds specifically to a DNA sequence called the TATA box. This DNA sequence is found about 30 base pairs upstream of the transcription start site in some eukaryotic gene promoters.

Is TFIIB a protein?

Structure. TFIIB is a single 33kDa polypeptide consisting of 316 amino acids. … TFIIB makes sequence-specific protein-DNA interactions with the B recognition element (BRE), a promoter element flanking the TATA element.

At which site on the DNA of a gene does RNA polymerase release its newly made RNA?

Essential Cell Biology :From DNA to Protein

Question Answer
14) At which site on the DNA of a gene does RNA polymerase release its newly made RNA? Terminator
15) What is the name of the subunit of bacterial RNA polymerase that recognizes the promoter of a gene? Sigma factor

What is TIM22?

Tim22, a subunit of the TIM22 complex, forms a channel within the inner membrane and is referred to as the carrier translocase. … The carrier preprotein is then inserted into the inner mitochondrial membrane in a potential-dependent fashion.

Where are Tim and Tom located?

This protein complex is functionally analogous to the TIC/TOC complex located on the inner and outer membranes of the chloroplast, in the sense that it transports proteins into the membrane of the mitochondria. Although they both hydrolyze triphosphates, they are evolutionally unrelated.

What is Tim23?

Tim23, a key component of the mitochondrial preprotein translocase, is anchored in the inner membrane by its C-terminal domain and exposes an intermediate domain in the intermembrane space that functions as a presequence receptor.

What is Preprotein Translocase?

Preprotein translocase, the membrane transporter for secretory proteins, is a processive enzyme. It comprises the membrane proteins SecYEG(DFYajC) and the peripheral ATPase SecA, which acts as a motor subunit.

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What do hydrolases do?

Hydrolases are enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a covalent bond using water. Types of hydrolase include esterases, such as phosphatases, that act on ester bonds, and proteases or peptidases that act on amide bonds in peptides.

What do you mean by transferases?

: an enzyme that promotes transfer of a group from one molecule to another.

What function do hydrolases accomplish?

Hydrolase, any one of a class of more than 200 enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of several types of compounds.

What are the 4 main digestive enzymes?

The most important digestive enzymes are:

  • Amylase.
  • Maltase.
  • Lactase.
  • Lipase.
  • Proteases.
  • Sucrase.

What are 5 enzymes and their functions?

Examples of specific enzymes

  • Lipases – a group of enzymes that help digest fats in the gut.
  • Amylase – helps change starches into sugars. …
  • Maltase – also found in saliva; breaks the sugar maltose into glucose. …
  • Trypsin – found in the small intestine, breaks proteins down into amino acids.

What are the 4 types of enzymes?


  • amylase and other carbohydrase enzymes break down starch into sugar.
  • protease enzymes break down proteins into amino acids.
  • lipase enzymes break down lipids (fats and oils) into fatty acids and glycerol.

What are proteolytic enzymes?

Proteolytic enzymes (proteases) are enzymes that break down protein. These enzymes are made by animals, plants, fungi, and bacteria. Some proteolytic enzymes that may be found in supplements include bromelain, chymotrypsin, ficin, papain, serrapeptase, and trypsin.

What chemical acts as coenzyme in transferase reactions?

Coenzyme A Transferase

  • Coenzyme A.
  • Acetyl-CoA.
  • Succinyl-CoA.
  • Oxalic Acid.
  • Enzyme.
  • Protein.
  • Oxoacid.
  • Acetic Acid.

What is the function of lyase?

Lyases are the enzymes responsible for catalyzing addition and elimination reactions. Lyase-catalyzed reactions break the bond between a carbon atom and another atom such as oxygen, sulfur, or another carbon atom.