What is a construal in social psychology?

Construal is defined as an individual’s subjective interpretation of a stimulus, whether the stimulus is a choice set, a situation, another person or group or people, a survey, or an experimental intervention (Ross and Nisbett, 1991).

What is a construal example?

Indeed, anytime one views the self as part of a “we” instead of only a “me,” this represents an interdependent construal. For example, when individuals are playing a team sport or spending time with their family, they are more likely to construe the self as interdependent.

Why is construal important in social psychology?

In social psychology, a construal is how people perceive, comprehend, and interprets their world, particularly the acts of others toward them. … Construal plays a crucial role when one lacks the knowledge to correctly deal with a situation.

What role does construal play in decision making?

That is, individuals in a high construal mindset should be more likely to act in accordance with their internal preferences and values, leading to more advantageous choices on decision making tasks when the goal of the task is congruent with a focus on long-term outcomes (e.g., winning more money on the IGT).

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What is construal in language?

Construal thus (re)distributes attention in a specific way, or (re)directs attention towards certain aspects of the situation and reflects the user’s ability to adjust the focus of attention by altering what tends to be called the mental imagery associated with a situation.

What is a construal describe two different ways in which a person might consider the same situation?

What is a construal? Describe two different ways in which a person might construe the same situation. Construal- how people perceive, understand, and interpret the people, events, and things around them. People create their own realities. … -Example of Automatic- Afraid of sweaty backpack person in airport.

Which is the example of schema?

Examples of schemata include rubrics, perceived social roles, stereotypes, and worldviews. The concept of schema was first introduced into psychology by British psychologist Frederic Bartlett in Remembering: A Study in Experimental and Social Psychology (1932).

What are the types of self-construal?

Self-construal, or self-image, is composed of two aspects: an independent self and an interdependent self (Markus & Kitayama, 1991, 1994). Four self-construal types result from a combination of the two components of self: biconstrual, independent, interdependent, and ambivalent.

Why is construal level theory important?

Construal level theory (CLT) proposes that we do so by forming abstract mental construals of distal objects. Thus, although we cannot experience what is not present, we can make predictions about the future, remember the past, imagine other people’s reactions, and speculate about what might have been.

What is social construal?

Construal is a social psychological term that refers to the way in which (or the process of) people perceive, comprehend, and interpret the world around them. We all need to interpret the world around us so that we can make sense of the world and determine our own actions and judgements.

What is self-construal theory?

Self-construal refers to the grounds of self-definition, and the extent to which the self is defined independently of others or interdependently with others. Initially, the term derived from perceived cultural differences in the self.

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Which of the following is a consequence of underestimating the power of social influence?

The tendency to underestimate the power of social influence. Which of the following is a consequence of underestimating the power of social influence? We tend to oversimplify complex situations.

How can construal levels be manipulated?

Construal level was manipulated by psychological distance in the way that the problems varied in terms of temporal, social, and spatial distance.

What is high level construal?

High level construal is when people think abstractly. When thinking on this level, people are looking at the bigger picture; not focusing on details. At the high level, people focus on central features that capture the overall gist of the situation or object.

What is subjective construal?

Subjective Construal. The way each of us as an individual interprets what we see around us in the world. Motion Picture: Gives the illusion of motion, when its just a series of frames (brain is the motion)

What is independent self construal?

Independent self-construal, in contrast, is the extent to which people view the self as being separate and distinct from others and the social world.

What factors impact Construals?

Research has shown that different dimensions of psychological distance (time, space, social distance, and hypotheticality) affect mental construal and that these construals, in turn, guide prediction, evaluation, and behavior.

What is implied by the extended contact hypothesis?

What is implied by the extended contact hypothesis? You will reduce prejudice among a your friends if they know cross-group friends.

What are the 3 types of schema?

Schema is of three types: Logical Schema, Physical Schema and view Schema.

What are the four types of schema?


  • Person schemas are focused on specific individuals. …
  • Social schemas include general knowledge about how people behave in certain social situations.
  • Self-schemas are focused on your knowledge about yourself. …
  • Event schemas are focused on patterns of behavior that should be followed for certain events.
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What are Piaget’s schemas?

Schemas are categories of knowledge that help us to interpret and understand the world. In Piaget’s view, a schema includes both a category of knowledge and the process of obtaining that knowledge.3 As experiences happen, this new information is used to modify, add to, or change previously existing schemas.

How do you become an individualist?

A few common characteristics of individualistic cultures include:

  1. Being dependent upon others is often considered shameful or embarrassing.
  2. Independence is highly valued.
  3. Individual rights take center stage.
  4. People often place a greater emphasis on standing out and being unique.
  5. People tend to be self-reliant.

Is self-construal and self concept the same?

Accordingly, self-construal concept is defined in terms of two dimensions: independent and interdependent self-construal. Independent self-construal is related to uniqueness and individuality of the self; interdependent self-construal is defined as a link to group membership (Gudykunst & Lee, 2003.

What is Metapersonal?

The metapersonal self is characterized by “a sense of one’s identity that extends beyond the individual or personal to encompass wider aspects of humankind, life, psyche or the cosmos” (DeCicco & Stroink, 2007, p. 84).

What are the key factors in construal level theory?

Construal level theory identifies four dimensions of distance from direct experience—temporal, physical, social, and hypotheticality (Trope & Liberman, 2010).

What is construal level theory marketing?

Construal level theory is a theory that perceives that the further the psychological distance between a person and an object or event, the higher the level of abstraction will be. On the other hand, the closer the psychological distance is, the more concrete it tends to appear.

What is temporal construal?

a model stating that people rely on largely abstract representations (high-level construals) of future situations when making decisions for the distant future but on more concrete representations (low-level construals) when making decisions for the near future.