Table of Contents
What does the Morris water maze test measure?
The Morris water maze (MWM) is a test of spatial learning for rodents that relies on distal cues to navigate from start locations around the perimeter of an open swimming arena to locate a submerged escape platform. … Cued trials determine whether performance factors that are unrelated to place learning are present.
How does Morris water maze work?
The Morris water maze is widely used to study spatial memory and learning. Animals are placed in a pool of water that is colored opaque with powdered non-fat milk or non-toxic tempera paint, where they must swim to a hidden escape platform.
Who invented the Morris water maze?
Richard Morris It was developed by Richard Morris at the University of St Andrews in Scotland and first described in two publications in the early 1980s (Morris, 1981; Morris et al., 1982).
What is Y maze test?
Y Maze Spontaneous Alternation is a behavioral test for measuring the willingness of rodents to explore new environments. … Testing occurs in a Y-shaped maze with three white, opaque plastic arms at a 120 angle from each other.
What is escape latency in Morris water maze?
One of the most commonly used performance measures is the escape latency, defined as the time for the animal to find the platform and escape the maze.
What is elevated plus maze test?
The Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) test is used to assess anxiety-related behavior in rodent models of CNS disorders. The EPM apparatus consists of a +-shaped maze elevated above the floor with two oppositely positioned closed arms, two oppositely positioned open arms, and a center area.
Is Hever Castle water maze open?
The Water Maze & Yew Maze are open weather permitting.
How do I build Morris water maze?
What is the main finding from the Morris water maze studies?
In summary, our findings demonstrate that the Morris water maze can be used to assess spatial learning and memory in weanling mice, providing a potentially powerful experimental approach for examining the influence of genes, environmental factors and their interactions on the development of learning and memory.
Where are place cells found?
the hippocampus Place cells are spatially modulated neurons found in the hippocampus that underlie spatial memory and navigation: how these neurons represent 3D space is crucial for a full understanding of spatial cognition.
What did research on spatial learning in rats trained on a water maze task reveal?
Terms in this set (10) Research on spatial learning in rats trained on the Morris water maze task (finding the hidden platform) revealed which of the following? … The principal effect of hippocampal lesions is that rats require many more trials to learn the location of a submerged platform.
What is passive avoidance test?
The Passive Avoidance task is a fear-aggravated test used to evaluate learning and memory in rodent models of CNS disorders. In this test, subjects learn to avoid an environment in which an aversive stimulus (such as a foot-shock) was previously delivered.
How does a Y maze work?
Testing occurs in a Y-shaped maze with three identical arms at a 120 angle from each other. After introduction to the center of the maze, the animal is given free access to all three arms. If the animal chooses a different arm than the one it arrived from, this choice is called an alteration.
How do you calculate alternation?
Number of arm entries and number of alternations are scored live in order to calculate the percent alternation. The entry is considered when all four limbs are within the arm. The alternation percentage is calculated by dividing the number of alternations by number of possible triads x 100.
What is novel object recognition test?
The Novel Object Recognition (NOR) task is used to evaluate cognition, particularly recognition memory, in rodent models of CNS disorders. This test is based on the spontaneous tendency of rodents to spend more time exploring a novel object than a familiar one.
What is a water maze?
A water maze is a device used to test an animal’s memory in which the alleys are filled with water, providing a motivation to escape. Many different mazes exist, such as T- and Y-mazes, Cincinnati water mazes, and radial arm mazes.
What is reference memory?
Reference memory is a long-term memory. In a spatial task, it mimics two aspects of episodic memory, namely the what (content) and where (place) dimensions of an event. One of the tasks most frequently used to assess spatial reference memory in the rat is the Morris water maze.
What is the meaning of spatial learning?
Spatial learning refers to the process by which an organism acquires a mental representation of its environment. Spatial learning has been found in both vertebrate and invertebrate species.
What is elevated plus maze used for?
The elevated plus maze is a widely used behavioral assay for anxiety behavior of rodents. It is easy to use, can be fully automated and valid results can be obtained in a short, 5-min testing period.
What is elevated zero maze?
Elevated zero maze is a modification of the elevated plus maze model of anxiety in rodents. … Results of the present study indicated that elevated zero maze offered a better animal model to study antianxiety activity, when compared with elevated plus maze and mirror chamber.
What is Rotarod apparatus?
Rotarod test is widely used to evaluate drug effects on motor coordination, balance and motor learning in rodents. The principle of this test is that rats or mice are first trained to walk on a rod rotating at a certain speed.
Where is the biggest maze in England?
Longleat Maze Longleat Maze, Wiltshire With almost two miles of paths to choose from, Longleat Maze is one for the brave it was once the biggest maze in the world and remains the largest in Britain.
What castle has a water maze?
Hever Castle The Water Maze at Hever Castle in Kent is a remarkable water monument which attracts thousands of tourists each year. Based at the Hever Castle in Kent which was once home to Anne Boleyn this stunning yet entertaining water feature was built in 1999 on the castle grounds.
What castle has a maze?
The Hampton Court Palace Maze is the UK’s oldest surviving hedge maze. Commissioned around 1700 by William III, it covers a third of an acre and is known for confusing and intriguing visitors with its many twists, turns and dead ends. On average, it takes 20 minutes to reach the centre.
How does contextual fear conditioning differ from cued fear conditioning?
2.2. Cued fear conditioning is similar to contextual conditioning, with one notable exception: a CS is added to the context. … However, preexposure to the context alone is not sufficient to fully separate cue- and context-specific freezing behavior.