Single enchondromas rarely become cancerous, though the chances are a little higher in patients with Ollier’s disease and Maffucci’s syndrome. When enchonromas do become cancerous, they usually become a type of malignant cartilage tumor called a chondrosarcoma.
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How is chondrosarcoma different from enchondroma?
Mirra et al9 showed that tissue pattern can be used for making a distinction between enchondroma and chondrosarcoma of the bones. With these patterns enchondroma consists of hyaline cartilage nodules surrounded by lamellar bone. The pattern of chondrosarcoma comprises a cartilage that permeates into marrow.
Can imaging criteria distinguish enchondroma from grade 1 chondrosarcoma?
Results: The correct diagnosis of enchondroma was made on radiographs in 43 (67.2%) of readings, and on MRI in 37/64 (57.8%). The correct diagnosis of chondrosarcoma was made on radiographs in 5/24 (20.8%) of readings, and on MRI in 14/24 (57.8%).
Does chondrosarcoma show on bone scan?
Typically chondrosarcomas demonstrate increased uptake on bone scan, seen in over 80% of cases, and usually the uptake is quite intense.
Can an enchondroma grow?
In general, after skeletal maturity, enchondromas do not grow and rarely cause pain. Endosteal scalloping may occur with enchondromas. Anteroposterior and lateral plain film evaluation should be undertaken initially.
What are the symptoms of chondrosarcoma?
What are the symptoms of chondrosarcoma?
- Large lump (mass) on a bone.
- Feeling of pressure around the lump.
- Pain that gets worse over time.
- Weakness and limited movement in a limb or joint.
- Local swelling.
- Joint stiffness.
- Tumors in the pelvis can cause bowel and/or bladder problems.
How is enchondroma diagnosed?
How is an enchondroma diagnosed?
- X-rays. This test uses invisible electromagnetic energy beams to make images of internal tissues, bones, and organs on film.
- Radionuclide bone scans. This is a nuclear imaging test. …
- MRI. …
- CT scan.
What is a low-grade chondrosarcoma?
Low-grade chondrosarcomas (LGCS) are tumours that grow slowly over time and do not generally metastasize and people do not usually die from this disease. In the late 20th century, the condition was treated by cutting out large portions of bone surrounding the tumour (wide resection).
What is a size enchondroma?
The size of the enchondroma is often < 3 cm. Radiologically, matrix mineralization in the form of “popcorn” calcifications is often seen. The edge of the lesion is most often lobular and sharp.
What does chondrosarcoma feel like?
Chondrosarcoma: Symptoms Some symptoms of chondrosarcoma include: Sharp or dull pain where the tumor is located. The pain usually is worse at night, and will become more constant as the bone cancer grows. The pain may increase with exercise, physical activity, or heavy lifting.
What is the survival rate for chondrosarcoma?
The 5-year survival rate for chondrosarcoma is 75.2%, which is much higher than that of osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma 3. Tumor size, grade, stage, local recurrence, metastasis at presentation, systemic treatment, and radiotherapy are all associated with the prognosis of chondrosarcoma 4 – 7.
Is chondrosarcoma benign or malignant?
Cartilage plays an important role in the growth process. There are many different types of cartilage that are present throughout the body. Chondrosarcoma is a malignant type of bone cancer that primarily affects the cartilage cells of the femur (thighbone), arm, pelvis, knee, and spine.
Is enchondroma genetic?
Spondyloenchondrodysplasia (SPENCD, enchondromatosis Spranger type IV) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder caused by mutations in the ACP5 gene. It is characterized by vertebral dysplasia combined with enchondroma like lesions in the pelvis or long tubular bones.
What is a distal femur enchondroma?
Enchondroma is a solitary, benign, intramedullary cartilaginous tumour occurring most commonly in small bones of hands and feet. Distal femur and proximal humerus are other less common locations. Enchondroma consists of 3-10% of all bone tumours, while they constitute 12-24% of benign bone tumours.
Do benign bone tumors cause pain?
Benign tumors may be painless, but often they cause bone pain. The pain can be severe. Pain may occur when at rest or at night and tends to progressively worsen.
Who gets chondrosarcoma?
Chondrosarcoma occurs most often in middle-aged and older adults, though it can occur at any age. Other bone diseases. Ollier’s disease and Maffucci’s syndrome are conditions that cause noncancerous bone growths (enchondromas) in the body. These growths sometimes transform into chondrosarcoma.
What are the stages of chondrosarcoma?
The Enneking staging system for musculoskeletal sarcomas is applicable to chondrosarcomas, as follows : Stage I (low-grade tumor) – Stage I-A, intracompartmental; stage I-B, extracompartmental. Stage II (high-grade tumor) – Stage II-A, intracompartmental; stage II-B, extracompartmental. Stage III (distant metastasis)
Can chondrosarcoma be cured?
Chondrosarcoma treatment often involves surgery to remove the cancer. Other treatments might be recommended in certain situations. Which options are best for you depends on where your cancer is located, how quickly it’s growing, whether it has grown to involve other structures, your overall health and your preferences.
How is enchondroma treated?
Surgery (in some cases, when bone weakening is present or fractures occur) Bone grafting – A surgical procedure in which healthy bone is transplanted from another part of the patient’s body into the affected area.
What is an atypical enchondroma?
Atypical enchondromas have increased cellularity and atypia relative to simple enchondromas but no evidence of permeation. Chondrosarcomas of the phalanges are thought to have a more indolent course than chondrosarcomas in other locations.
Which type of bone tumor occurs most commonly in elderly clients?
Osteosarcoma is the most common type of primary malignant bone tumor in children and young adults. However, primary osteosarcoma in elderly patients is rare.
How long can you live with chondrosarcoma?
|SEER stage||5-year relative survival rate|
|All SEER stages combined||78%|
Can low grade chondrosarcoma?
Low-grade chondrosarcomas can have similar histologic features as an enchondroma. Both enchondroma and low-grade chondrosarcoma are composed of hyaline cartilage of relatively low cellularity [ 13 , 14 ]. Enchondromas exhibit paucicellular, organized discrete islands of hyaline cartilage surrounded by lamellar bone.
Does chondrosarcoma spread to lungs?
In our study, 5.3% (chondrosarcoma) has lung metastases. The rate of metastasis is related to histological tumor grade. Although Ewing sarcoma was a rare sarcoma type in younger age, in our study, Ewing sarcoma is the most common lung metastases sarcoma type. The rate of lung metastases is 18.8%.
Who treats enchondroma?
Depending on the size and location of enchondroma removed, your child may be able to return home that day or may spend one night in the Hospital. Enchondromas that appear in the head or neck and require specialized surgery will be treated by a surgeon from the Head and Neck Disorders Program at CHOP.
Can a fracture cause an enchondroma?
However, there is an increased representation of fractures involving the small finger in the traumatic group (53.8% vs 37.0%). This suggests that the small finger may be at greater risk of traumatic fracture in the setting of an enchondroma.